English homepage » Postgraduate Studies » Departmental Programme » Seminars » Archaeology and History of Art » Prehistoric Archaeology

Seminars of Prehistoric Archaeology







The archaeology of the open-air Paleolithic sites: depositional environments, use and organization of the space, material culture. Prehistoric Aegean: Methodological approach to the marine environment.


G. Kourtessi-Filippaki (with the assistance of dr V. Tourloukis)




Religion and ritual practices in prehistoric Crete and Cyprus, with emphasis on the Late Bronze Age.

E. Mantzourani



Mortuary archaeology of the Prehistoric Aegean: archaeological and biological approaches.           

Y. Papadatos – E. Prevedorou (Wiener Laboratory, ASCSA)





The philosophical background of archaeological interpretation.

 G. Vavouranakis



Prehistoric Aegean: Methodological approach to the marine environment.

L. Karali - G. Ferentinos



The "Dark Ages" in the Near East and Cyprus at the end of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

K. Kopanias (with the assistance of dr. Y. Voskos)



The Middle Helladic Period- a period of crisis or of transformation?

A. Xasiakou-Argyraki



(with the assistance of dr V. Tourloukis, Univ. of Tübingen)

Winter semester


Subject: The archaeology of the open-air Paleolithic sites: depositional environments, use and organization of the space, material culture.


Summary: In contrast to the sheltered Palaeolithic sites, namely caves and rockshelters, which favor the preservation of archaeological remains, the excavation and interpretation of open-air sites presents particular challenges, not only in methodological terms but also on a theoretical level. Nevertheless, the open-air sites comprise a large part of the Palaeolithic record – and indeed, in some cases and for specific periods, such as the Lower Palaeolithic, they comprise the majority of the total number of sites. Depending on the period under investigation, different hypotheses have been put forth to interpret the spatial distribution of open-air sites in the landscape and the possible diachronic and synchronic associations between them. Such perspectives are usually included within broader explanatory models, which investigate the settlement networks and movement patterns of hunter-gatherers, using ethnographic analogues as frames of reference and/or, more recently, computer-based simulations and data analysis. At the micro-scale of individual sites, the geoarchaeological investigation of site-formation processes and the study of the taphonomy are necessary steps for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the finds and their incorporation into a chrono-stratigraphic framework: only then we are able to discuss issues such as the presence of discernible spatial activity areas, in order to extract conclusions about human behavior. In the seminar, the above-mentioned subjects will be explored on the basis of specific case-studies from European Palaeolithic sites and with reference to open-air sites from Greece (e.g. Epirus).

Selected bibliography

Bailey G. N. (επιμ.), Klithi : Palaeolithic settlement and Quaternary landscapes in northwest Greece. Vol. 1: Excavation and intra-site analysis at Klithi. Vol. 2: Klithi in its local and regional setting Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 1997.

Bailey G. N. et al.(επιμ.), The Palaeolithic Archaeology of Greece and adjacent areas, Proceedings of the ICOPAG Conference, Ioannina, Athens 1999.

Chazan M., Horwitz L. K., Finding the message in intricacy: the association of lithics and fauna on Lower Palaeolithic Multiple Carcass Sites. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25 (2006), 436-447.

Conard N., Serangeli J., Böhner U., Starkovich B.M., Miller C., Urban B., Kolfschoten T., Excavations at Schöningen and paradigm shifts in human evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 89 (2015), 1-17.

Κουρτέση-Φιλιππάκη Γ., Η Παλαιολιθική εποχή στην Ελλάδα,  Αρχαιολογία και Τέχνες, τεύχη 58-61 (1996).

Roebroeks W., De Loecker D., Hennekens P., van Ieperen M., “A veil of stones”: on the interpretation of an early Middle Palaeolithic low density scatter at Maastricht-Belvedere (The Netherlands). Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 25 (1992), 1-16.

Shaw A., Bates M., Conneller C., Gamble C., Julien M.-A., Mc Nabb J., Pope M., Scott B., The archaeology of persistent places: the Palaeolithic case of La Cotte de St Brelade, Jersey, Antiquity 90 (2016), 1437-1453.

Tourloukis V., On the spatio-temporal distribution of Mediterranean Lower Palaeolithic sites: a geoarchaeological perspective, στο: K.  Harvati., M. Roksandic (επιμ.), Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia: Human evolution and its context. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series, Dordrecht 2016: Springer Verlag.



Winter semester


Subject: Religion and ritual practices in prehistoric Crete and Cyprus, with emphasis on the Late Bronze Age.


Summary: This seminar aims at the research of religious beliefs and ritual practices of the societies of prehistoric Crete and Cyprus, particularly during the Late Bronze Age. The subject is approached at two levels. First, the architectural remains of sites, traditionally considered as sacred places, on the basis of their design and equipment, are examined. The term design includes issues like the organization of space and the presence of structures with religious character, while equipment refers to objects of specialized use, as for instance clay and stone vessels, figurines made of different materials and other. At a second level, the relevant iconographic representations and the various interpretations suggested regarding their meaning will be studied. The term iconography includes mainly representations on fresco paintings, seal engraving, the clay models and/or representations in other means.

Within this larger context a series of problems will be discussed: the identification of formal and informal areas of worship, the status of deity or deities, the character of the ceremonies and the possible association of religion with groups exercising power.


Selected bibliography

CMS (Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel), επιμ. F. Matz&H. Biesantz, Berlin 1964-2000, Mainz 2002-.

Betancourt, P., Introduction to Aegean Art, Philadelphia 2007.

Brecoulaki Η., Davis J., Stocker L. & Sh. (επιμ.), Mycenaean Wall Painting in Context. New Discoveries, Old Finds Reconsidered, Αθήνα2015.

Δημοπούλου-Ρεθεμιωτάκη Ν., Το Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο  Ηρακλείου, Αθήνα 2005.

Gesell G. C., Town, Palace and House Cult in Minoan Crete, SIMA 67, Gothenburg 1985.

Hitchcock L., Minoan Architecture: A Contextual Analysis, SIMA 155, Jonsered 2000.

Hägg R. (επιμ.), The Function of “Minoan Villa”, Stockholm 1997.

Hägg R. & N. Marinatos (επιμ.), The Function of the Minoan Palaces, Stockholm 1987.

Immerwahr S. A., Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age, Philadelphia 1989.

Koehl R., Aegean Bronze Age Rhyta, Philadelphia 2006.

Μαντζουράνη Ε., Η Αρχαιολογία της Προϊστορικής Κύπρου, Αθήνα 2001.

Μαντζουράνη Ε., Προϊστορική Κρήτη - Τοπογραφία και Αρχιτεκτονική, Αθήνα 2002.

Marinatos N., Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image and Symbol, Columbia, South Carolina 1993.

Nilsson M., Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in the Greek Religion, Lund 1968 (2ηεκδ.).

Pararas Y., Immovable Offertory Installations in Late Bronze Age Cyprus, SIMA Pocket-book 174, Säverlanden 2008.

Preziosi D. & Hitchock L., Aegean Art and Architecture, Oxford 1999.

Rutkowski B., The Cult Places of the Aegean, New Haven and London 1986.

Webb J. M., Ritual Architecture, Iconography and Practice in Cypriot Bronze Age, SIMA Pocket-book 75, Jonsered 1999.




Winter semester


Subject: Mortuary archaeology of the Prehistoric Aegean: archaeological and biological approaches.


Summary: The course deals with the archaeological record from the cemeteries of the Early and Middle Bronze Age Aegean: tomb architecture, spatial organization of cemeteries, mortuary practices, burial offerings, funerary rituals and ritual equipment. We critically examine theoretical schemes and methods of approach that have been implemented for the intepretation of the relevant evidence. We also provide an introduction to human osteology and the study of human skeletal remains through recent bioarchaeological approaches. We illustrate the importance of integrating archaeological and biological data for a thorough reconstruction of prehistoric human behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential and limitations in the use of moruary and osteoarchaeological data to reconstruct mortuary beliefs, demography and social organization of the Aegean communities in the 3rd and early 2ndmillenium B.C.

Selected bibliography

Bloch M. & Perry J., Death and the regeneration of life, Cambridge 1982. Ιδιαίτερα οι σελίδες 1-45.

Branigan K., Dancing with Death: Life and Death in Southern Crete, c. 3000-2000 BC., Amsterdam1 993.

Branigan K. (επιμ.), Cemetery and Society in the Bronze Age, Sheffield 1998.

Broodbank C., An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades, Cambridge2000.  Ιδιαίτερα οι σελίδες 247-275 και 299-319.

Buikstra J. E. & Beck L. A. (επιμ.), Bioarchaeology: The contextual analysis of human remains, Academic Press, 2006.

Buikstra J. E. & Ubelaker D. H., Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains: Proceedings of a seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History, Arkansas Archaeological Report Research Series,1994.

Cavanagh W. & Mee C., A Private Place: Death in Prehistoric Greece, SIMA CXXV, Jonsered 1998.

Laffineur R. (επιμ.), Thanatos: Les coutumes funéraires en Égée à l'Age du Bronze, Aegaeum 1. Liège 1987.

Metcalf P. & Huntington R., Celebrations of Death: the anthropology of mortuary ritual, Cambridge1 991.

Morris I., Ταφικά τελετουργικά έθιμα και κοινωνική δομή στην Κλασική Αρχαιότητα. Μτφρ. Κάτια Μαντέλη. Ηράκλειο 1997. Ιδιαίτερα οι σελίδες 1-39 και 253-267.

Moutafi I. & Voutsaki S., Commingled burials and shifting notions of the self at the onset of the Mycenaean era (1700-1500 BCE): The case of the Ayios Vasilios North Cemetery, Laconia 2016, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10, 780-790.

Parker Pearson M., The Archaeology of Death and Burial, Stroud 1999.

Prevedorou E., A bioarchaeological perspective on the human skeletal remains from the Mycenaean settlement and cemetery at Lazarides, Aegina: Preliminary results. Στο: Κλ. Ευστρατίου & Ν.  Πολυχρονάκου-Σγουρίτσα, Το μυκηναϊκό νεκροταφείο στους Λαζάρηδες Αίγινας, Αρχαιολογικό Δελτίο 65-66 (2016), τ. Α΄-Μελέτες, 149-160.

Prevedorou E. & Stojanowski C. M., Biological kinship, postmarital residence, and the emergence of cemetery formalization at prehistoric Marathon. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 2017.

Pullen D. J., Mortuary practices in Early Bronze Greece: Identifying patterns of prehistoric behavior, AJA 90 (1986), 178.

Soles J.F., The Prepalatial Cemeteries at Mochlos and Gournia and the House Tombs of Bronze Age Crete. Hesperia suppl. 24. Princeton 1992.

Triantaphyllou S., Prospects for reconstructing the lives of Middle Helladic Populations in the Argolid: Past and present of human bone studies. Στο: A. Philippa-Touchais et al. Mesohelladika: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique,  441-451.

Triantaphyllou S., Staging the manipulation of the dead in Pre- and Protopalatial Crete, Greece (3rd-early 2nd mill. BCE): From body wholes to fragmented body parts. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10 (2016), 769-779.

Weiberg E., Thinking the Bronze Age: Life and Death in Early Helladic Greece. Boreas, Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations 29. Uppsala 2007. Ιδιαίτερα οι σελίδες 187-388.

Voutsaki S., Milka E., Triantaphyllou S., & Zerner C., Middle Helladic Lerna: Diet, economy, society. Στο: Voutsaki, S. & S.-M. Valamoti (επιμ.), Diet, Economy, and Society in the ancient Greek World. Pharos Supplement 1, 2013, 133-147.




Spring semester


Subject:      The philosophical background of archaeological interpretation.


Summary: The aim of the seminar is to study some of the ideas of modern and contemporary philosophy that have influenced archaeological thought, as they are about the relationship between people and material culture.  The students select representatives of philosophy and the widely defined social theory (e.g. Marx, Saussure, Heidegger, Giddens, Bourdieu, Deleuze, Foucault, Merlau-Ponty, deLanda), they discussthe ideas per se andthey find an archaeological example in order to understand Prehistoric Aegean through these ideas.


Selected bibliography

Hitchcock L., Theory for Classics: A Student's Guide, London and New York 2008, Routledge.

Holtorf C. - Karlsson H. (επιμ.), Philosophy and Archaeological Practice. Perspectives for the 21st Century, Göteborg 2000, Bricoleur Press.

Wylie A., Thinking from things: Essays in the philosophy of archaeology, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London: University of California Press, 2002.

Bhabha H. K., The location of culture, London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Butler J., Αναταραχή φύλου: Ο φεμινισμός και η ανατροπή της ταυτότητας (μετάφραση Γ. Καράμπελας), Αθήνα: Αλεξάνδρεια, 2009.

DeLanda M., Assemblage theory, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2016.

Deleuze G. – Guattari, F., Καπιταλισμός και σχιζοφρένεια: αντί –Οιδίπους (μετάφραση Κ. Χατζηδήμου, Ι. Ράλλη. Θεώρηση της μετάφρασης Γ. Κρητικός), Αθήνα: Ράππα, 1977.

Foucault M., Ετεροτοπίες: και άλλα κείμενα (μετάφραση Τ. Μπέτζελος), Αθήνα: Πλέθρον, 2012.

Foucault M., Η τάξη του λόγου: εναρκτήριο μάθημα στο College de France-1970 (μετάφραση Χ. Χρηστίδης, Μ. Μαϊδάτσης), Αθήνα: Ηριδανός, 1991.

Giddens A., The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration, Cambridge 1984, Polity Press.

Haraway D., Ανθρωποειδή κυβόργια και γυναίκες: Η επανεπινόηση της φύσης (μετάφραση Π. Μαρκέτου), Αθήνα: Αλεξάνδρεια, 2014.

Heidegger M., Περί πολιτικής. Περί αληθείας. Περί τεχνικής (μετάφραση Δ. Τζωρτζόπουλος), Αθήνα: Ηριδανός 2011.

Heidegger M., Κτίζειν, κατοικείν, σκέπτεσθαι (μετάφραση Γ. Ξηροπαΐδης), Αθήνα: Πλέθρον 2008.

Marx K., Κριτική της πολιτικής οικονομίας (μετάφραση Φ. Φωτίου), Αθήνα: Θεμέλιο, 1978.

Serres M., Το παράσιτο (μετάφραση Ν. Ηλιάδης) Αθήνα: Σμίλη, 2009.



L. KARALI - G. FERENTINOS (Univ. of Patras)

Spring semester


Subject: Prehistoric Aegean: Methodological approach to the marine environment.


Summary:  During the last decades archaeology has expanded in the study of the submarine antiquities. The Greek seas are covered by cultural treasures, which wait to be studied and promoted. Therefore, well trained archaeologists are needed to unearth these underwater cultural treasures. This seminar is planned to train archaeologists in:

A) Mapping the underwater archaeological sites with remote sensing geophysical techniques

B)  Sea level changes

C) Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology. Palaeoecology in prehistoric and historic time.


Selected bibliography

Allen K. M. S., Green S. W., Zubrow E. B. W., Interpreting space: GIS and archaeology, London 1990.

Αλματζή Α., Γενικά για λιμναίους οικισμούς, Επτάκυκλος 15, 2000, 82-86.

Battarbee R. W., The use of Diatom Analysis in Archaeology: A review, Journal of Archaeological Science 15 1988, 621-644

Bocquet A., Archéologie des lacs et des rivières, Annecy 1984.

Brown A. G., Alluvial geoarchaeology, Cambridge 1997.

Chambers F. M., Climate change and human impact on the landscape, London 1993.

Courty M. A., Goldberg P. & Macphail R., Soils and micromorphology in archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology, Cambridge 1989.

Dincauze D. F., Environmental Archaeology. Principles and Practice, Cambridge 2000.

Harrison S. P. & . Digerfeldt G., European lakes as palaeohydrological and palaeo-climatic indicators, Quaternary Science Reviews 12, 1993, 233-248.

Hassan F., Geoarchaeology: the geologist and archaeology, American Antiquity 44 (1979), 207-270.

Higgins, M. D. & Higgins R., A geological companion to Greece and the Aegean, Ithaca, NY 1996.  

Jones R. E., Isserlin B. S. J., Karastathis V., Papamarinopoulos S. P., Syrides G. E. κ.ά., Exploration of the Canal of Xerxes, Northern Greece: the role of Geophysical and other techniques, Archaeological Prospection 7, 2000, 147-170.

Καραλή Λ., Περιβαλλοντική Αρχαιολογία, Αθήνα 2005.

Καραλή Λ., Μυλωνά Δ. κ.ά.,  Το θαλάσσιο περιβάλλον στο: Η. Ευθυμιόπουλος & Μ. Μοδινός (επιμ.), Διεπιστημονικό Ινστιτούτο Περιβαλλοντικών Ερευνών (ΔΙΠΕ), Αθήνα 2000.

Καραλή  Λ. & Φερεντίνος Γ. (επιμ.), Τετράδια Γεωαρχαιολογίας. Συλλογικό  έργο, εκδ. Ολκός, Αθήνα 2015.

Karastathis V. K., Papamarinopoulos S. & Jones R. E., 2-D velocity structure of the buried ancient canal of Xerxes; an application of seismic methods in archaeology, Journal of Applied Geophysics 47, 2001, 29-43.

Kraft J. C. κ.ά., Palaeogeographic reconstructions of coastal Aegean archaeological sites, Science 195, 1977, 941-947.

Kraft J., Rapp G., Gifford J. & Aschenbrenner S., Coastal Change and Archaeological Settings in Elis, Hesperia 74, 2005, 1-39.

Raikes R. L., Water, weather and prehistory, 2nd edition, N. Jersey 1984.



K. KOPANIAS (with the assistance of Dr. Y. Voskos)

Spring semester


Subject:      The "Dark Ages" in the Near East and Cyprus at the end of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.


Summary: The aim of this seminar is to examine the period following the collapse of the great palatial centers in the wider Eastern Mediterranean area at the end of the Late Bronze Age as well as the subsequent emergence of postpalatial societies. This examination includes a comprehensive view of the late phases of the Hittite, Egyptian and Assyrian kingdoms as well as their successors (Late-Ηittite kingdoms in Anatolia and Syria) and the new minor kingdoms in Phoenicia, Israel and south Palestine. A special emphasis will be placed on the case of Cyprus. Despite the fact that the island faced a period of catastrophes and socio-economic restructuring, the “crisis years” do not seem to have drastically altered the patterns of external relations and active participation in the exchange networks. Furthermore, the transition to the Early Iron Age is characterized by the consolidation of political fragmentation on the island and the rise of the Cypriot kingdoms who will survive, by and large, until the Hellenistic period.

Selected  bibliography

Bryce T. R., The world of the Neo-Hittite kingdoms: a political and military history, Oxford 2012.

Cline E. H., 1177 B.C. The year civilization collapsed, Princeton 2014.

Di Biase-Dyson C., Foreigners and Egyptians in the Late Egyptian Stories, Leiden, Boston 2013.

Galil G., Leṿinzon-Gilboʻa A., Maeir A. M., Kahn D. (επιμ.), The ancient Near East in the 12th-10th centuries BCE. Culture and history: proceedings of the international conference, held at the University of Haifa, 2-5 May, 2010. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 392, Münster 2012.

Gitin S., Mazarand A. Stern E. (επιμ.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Tenth Centuries. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem 1998.

Killebrew A. E., Lehmann G. (επιμ.), The Philistines and other "sea peoples" in text and archaeology. Archaeology and biblical studies 15,Atlanta  2013.

Killebrew A. E., Steiner M. (επιμ.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant, Oxford 2013.

Knapp A.B., The Archaeology of Cyprus; From Earliest Prehistory to the Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013.

MacGinnis J., Assyrians after the Fall: Evidence from the Ebabbara of Sippar, στο: Y. Heffron, A. Stone, M. Worthington, J.N. Postgate, In At the Dawn of History. Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of J.N. Postgate, Winona Lake 2017, 781-96.

McInerney J. (επιμ.), A companion to ethnicity in the ancient Mediterranean, Chichester, West Sussex 2014.

Μαντζουράνη Ε., Η Αρχαιολογία της Προϊστορικής Κύπρου. 2η έκδοση (2006), Ινστιτούτο του βιβλίου Α. Καρδαμίτσα, Αθήνα 2001.

Steadman S. R., McMahon J. G. (επιμ.), The Oxford handbook of ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E., Oxford & New York 2011.

Mieroop M. van de, The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II. Oxford 2010.

Voskos I. & Knapp A.B., “Cyprus at the end of the Late Bronze Age: crisis and colonization or continuity and hybridization?”, American Journal of Archaeology 112 (2008), 659–684.

Yasur-Landau A., The Philistines and Aegean migration at the end of the Late Bronze Age, Cambridge 2010.




Spring semester


Subject: The Middle Helladic Period - a period of crisis or of transformation?


Summary: We will examine the origins of the period in the Early Helladic world.  We will investigate its character and social structure through the architectural remains, the burial practices, and the pottery. We will discuss the process and the dynamics of the transition to the Late Helladics, as well as the beginning of the Mycenaean civilization.


Selected bibliography

Blackburn E.T., Middle Helladic Graves and Burial Customs, with Special Reference to Lerna in the Argolid,  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor 1970.

Boyd M., Middle Helladic and Early Mycenaean Mortuary Practices  in the Southern and Western Peloponnese, BAR-IS 1009, Oxford 2002.

Buck R.J., Middle Helladic Matt-painted Pottery, Hesperia 33 (1964), 231-313.

Cline E. (επιμ.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford 2010.

Felten Fl., Gaus W., Smetana R. (επιμ.), Middle Helladic Pottery and Synchronisms,   Proceedings of the International Workshop held at Salzburg, Oct. 31st - Nov. 2nd, 2004, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2007.

Forsen J., The Twilight of the Early Helladics. A study of the disturbances in East, Central and Southern Greece towards the end of the Early Bronze Age, Jonsered 1997.

Kilian-Dirlmeier I., Reiche Gräber der mittelhelladischen Zeit, στο: R. Laffineur, W.-D. Niemeier (επιμ.), Politeia. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age, Proceedings of the 5th International Aegean Conference / 5e Rencontre égéenneinternationale, University of Heidelberg,  ArchäologischesInstitut, 10-13 April, 1994, Τόμος I, Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art et archéologie de la Grèce antique; University of Texas at Austin, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory, Aegaeum 12, 1995, 49-53.

Κορρές Γ., Ο τύμβος της Βοϊδοκοιλιάς και η γένεσις του τύπου του θολωτού τάφου της Ηπειρωτικής Ελλάδος, Αρχαιολογικαί Διατριβαί επί θεμάτων της Εποχής του Xαλκού, Αθηνά 21, Εν Αθήναις 1979-1984.

Laffineur R. (επιμ.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent, Actes de la deuxième Rencontre égéenne internationale del'Université de Liège, 18-20 avril 1988, Université de Liège, Histoire del' art et archéologie de la Grèce antique, Aegaeum 3,1989.

Nordquist G., A Middle Helladic Village. Asine in the Argolid, Uppsala 1987.

Papadimitriou N., Built Chamber Tombs of Middle and Late Bronze Age Date in Mainland Greece and the Islands, BAR International Series 925, Oxford 2001.

Pelon Ol., Tholoi, Tumuli et Cercles Funéraires, Paris 1986.

Philippa-Touchais A., Touchais G., Voutsaki S., Wright J. (επιμ.), MESOHELLADIKA - ΜΕΣΟΕΛΛΑΔΙΚΑ, La Grèce continentale au Bronze  Moyen – Η ηπειρωτική Ελλάδα στη Μέση Εποχή του Χαλκού – The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age, Actes du colloque international organisé par l’Ecole Française d’ Athènes en collaboration avec L’ American School of Classical Studies at Athens et le Netherlands Institute in Athens, Athènes, 8-12 mars 2006, BCH Supplément 52, 2010.

Rutter J.B.-S., The Transition to Mycenaean. A stratified Middle Helladic II to Late Helladic IIA Pottery Sequence from Ayios Stephanos in Laconia, The Institute of Archaeology, The University of California, Los Angeles, Monumenta Archaeologica 4, 1976.

Zerner C., The Beginning of the Middle Helladic Period at Lerna, Ann Arbor 1979.