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Regulation

Master's Degree

1. Aims

 

Postgraduate Studies in the Department of History and Archaeology of the University of Athens operate in accordance with Law 2083/92, and they have been adjusted to Law on Postgraduate Studies 3685/2008. The Postgraduate Studies Program is extended until the academic year 2018-2019 in accordance to par.11, article 80 of Education Bill 4009/2011 (Government Gazette 195, issue A, 17-9-2013), as modified (Government Gazette 2310/B, 17-9-2013 and 1870/B, 30-5-2017).

Their aim is to offer:

a) A series of specialized seminars/courses to a limited number of students, providing in-depth knowledge on fields (including method) taught in the Department.

b) The organization, guidance and support of an original research in the following fields leading to a Master's thesis.

 

2. Fields

1) Prehistoric Archaeology
2) Classical Archaeology
3) Byzantine Archaeology
4) History of Modern Art
5) History of Greek and Roman Antiquity
6) Byzantine History
7) Ottoman History
8) Modern and Contemporary Greek History
9) European History

 

3. Administration

 

Postgraduate studies at the Department of History and Archaeology are administered and coordinated by the Board of Postgraduate Studies (BPS). This board consists of representatives of the departmental academic fields (see above, section 2), the Faculty Chair and the Departmental Chairs.

The proceedings of the BPS are also attended by one representative of the postgraduate students. This student representative does not have a right to vote.

The BPS meetings are called by the Chair of BPS, who must be a high-ranking member of the academic staff (either a full or an associate professor). The Chair is elected by the Special General Assembly of the Faculty (SGAF) (Law 3685/2008, article 2, paragraph d) and represents the Faculty in the University Board of Postgraduate Studies. The BPS is responsible for admissions and recommends the numbers to be admitted, including state scholarship holders and participants in exchange schemes; selects the candidates each year;

co-ordinates the annual syllabi; recommends the award of grants; and exercises general supervision over postgraduate studies, including the proposal for the deletion from the registry of students who have not successfully concluded their studies. At the end of each academic year the BPS reports to the SGAF.

The SGAF meets at least four times a year. It ratifies the recommendation of the BPS for the number of candidates admitted and informs the State Scholarship Foundation and the Ministry of Education of the number of scholarship holders that the program can take during the following academic year; it ratifies the BPS admission of successful candidates, the implementation of the syllabi and the students' grades; it awards postgraduate degrees. Moreover, it ratifies the recommendation of the BPS to delete from the registry those postgraduate students who have failed to complete their studies. It also authorizes the BPS to administer postgraduate studies during the following academic year.

The BPS has a full-time Office/Secretariat. The Office/Secretariat maintains the registry and the students' archive, and keeps the minutes of the BPS meetings. The Office/Secretariat issues certificates and conducts the correspondence that concerns postgraduate studies and postgraduate student exchange schemes. It also provides secretarial support to the academic events that are organized by the BPS.

 

4. Academic Staff

 

The academic staff of the Postgraduate Studies Program is defined according to the provisions of article 5 of Law 3685/2008.[1] Certain courses/seminars may be taught by specialists who are not members of Athens University. These specialists shall be recommended by the academic fields to the BPS.

A list of the suggested courses/seminars, which includes the specific subjects, the bibliography as well as the names of teaching staff, is submitted annually by each academic field to the BPS. The BPS, upon deliberating on the suggestions, is finally responsible for the coherence, the coordination and the satisfactory implementation of the program.

 

5. Structure of Studies

 

The duration of the Program of Postgraduate Studies is:

a) Two years (FULL TIME) (4 semesters) or

b) Three years (PART TIME) (6 semesters)

Students choose the duration of their program when they enrolled. The can only change their initial choice for serious reasons.

The Faculty offers a minimum number of six (6) courses/seminars per specialization. The topics and the bibliography are included in the prospectus of postgraduate studies, which is being posted on the Internet every year.

Each course/seminar is taught for one semester, in weekly three-hour sessions. At the beginning of each course/seminar the professor presents an introduction of its content and the topics to be addressed, provides bibliography and assigns paper topics.

The courses/seminars are conducted in the Greek language. However, there is a possibility of offering courses in English by visiting professors, who teach in foreign Universities.

Each student may attend up to three courses/seminars in every semester following a personal program, which is in accordance with the Postgraduate Program Regulations, and is formed in collaboration with the supervisor, who informs in writing the SGAF on the matter. The student is required to attend and successfully complete six seminars and also have to successfully complete a Masters Degree Dissertation (MDD).

 

6. Conditions of acceptance

 

The maximum number of students admitted annually to the Postgraduate Studies Program cannot exceed 62. The exact number of students is decided by the Special General Assembly of the Faculty (SGAF), following a recommendation of the Board of Postgraduate Studies (BPS). This decision shall take into the number of postgraduate students in each particular field. The Board's recommendation is based on the availability of academic staff in the Departments of History and of Archaeology and Art History for supervising postgraduate students. There might be an additional number of students that can be admitted as holders of state scholarships or as members of European Union postgraduate programs and other exchange schemes run by the Greek Ministry of Education, Continuing Education and Religious Affairs (henceforth Ministry of Education, CERA).

Candidates are expected to have obtained a BA degree from a corresponding Faculty (or School) of a Greek or a recognized foreign university of equal status. Foreign nationals are expected to have an adequate working knowledge of Greek, and to possess competence in at least another European language (see below for the admittance of holders of a BA of Departments other than History and/or Archaeology).[2]

Applications are submitted to the Office of Postgraduate Studies of the Department of History and Archaeology, University Campus Zografou, Athens, 4th floor, office 404) between 1-20 June and 1-10 September:

 

- Application form

- BA degree of a greek or a recognized foreign university

- The total grade of the courses of BA degree's

- Works related to the specialization

- Certificates of participation in excavations or seminars/conferences

- Certificate of knowledge one or more foreign languages

- Curiculum Vitae (CV)

The procedure of the selection of candidates take place in late September and early October of each year. The available places of study in 2017-2018 have been allocated as follows:

 

Prehistoric Archaeology

7

Classical Archaeology

7

Byzantine Archaeology

6

History of Modern Art

5

History of Greek and Roman Antiquity

7

Byzantine History

7

Ottoman History

2

MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY GREEK HISTORY

 

- Greek history from 13th c. to 1830

7

- Greek history from 1830 to 2008

7

European History

7

 

The categories of candidates are as follows:

 

A) Holders of BAs from a Department of History and/or Archaeology, from a corresponding Faculty of a Greek or other University of equal status

 

Selection is being made by a committee of the members of staff of each field, under the supervision of the BPS, as follows:

(a) a written examination in the candidates' chosen fields of study. The questions require answers in the form of short essays. The broader subjects for the examination are announced beforehand, and are posted in the internet. The questions are set by the appointed examiners shortly before the examination.

(b) an interview-oral examination.

During the interview, the candidate's knowledge in three topics of his/her chosen field, as well as his/her ability to make original research are tested. The examiners also take into account the candidate's first degree grade and especially the grades in the undergraduate courses of his/her chosen field, the knowledge of more than one foreign language, the performance at undergraduate seminars and the research experience, if any exists.

The interview is conducted by members of academic staff of the specific field chosen by the candidate. The number of the examiners should not exceed five (5).

The written examination accounts for 50% and the interview for 50% of the candidate's final grade. Successful applicants should attain an average grade of at least 7/10 [grading scale: 7 (pass) – 10 (excellent)].

Holders of state scholarships, scholars from the Hellenic Institute in Venice and archaeologists who are or have been accepted as members of the Greek Archaeological Service (admitted after competitive examination) are exempt from the written examination. During the interview, the aforementioned candidates are assessed on the basis of their knowledge of their chosen field, any additional qualifications, and their ability to adapt to the program. Candidates with scholarly publications may be exempt up to three seminars.

 

B) Holders of BAs of other Faculties (except History and/or Archaeology)

 

These candidates have the following options:

  • Either to sit the written and oral examinations, as the holders of BAs of History and/or Archaeology
  • Or to be admitted to a trial period of two semesters, leading to the program of postgraduate studies. In this case their selection for acceptance is being done in two stages:

 

(a) an interview by a board of examiners from the candidates' chosen field. The aim of the interview is to establish whether the candidate has the required basic background in his/her chosen field.

The selected candidates (who must not be more that two (2) in each field) will then be required to successfully attend five (5) undergraduate courses of their chosen field, as follows: two obligatory courses, two optional courses and an undergraduate seminar.

(b) Their success in the written exams of the above courses entitles them to be exempt from the written examination, and to be assessed only by an oral exam: that is the interview, by the regular board of examiners to determine their admission to the Program.

 

Holders of a Master's degree from other Faculties (similar to the chosen field) are admitted to the Program without written exams but with an interview, depending on the available vacancies in each academic field.

 

C) Special provisions

Foreign holders of a Greek state scholarship or other scholarships awarded for no longer than ten months may be registered for the Postgraduate Studies Program, provided they can be supervised by a member of the academic staff for the duration of the scholarship. They are accepted only for the duration of their scholarship. These students receive a certificate of attendance.

Candidates from European Union countries are included in the respective categories of the candidates from Greek Universities as stipulated above (holders of BAs of Faculties of History and/or Archaeology; and holders of BAs of other Faculties), and go through the same process of selection.

Candidates from countries other than the EU members are additionally required to submit, before the completion of their studies, a recognition of the equal status of their BAs by the Hellenic National Academic Recognition Information Center (NARIC).

Postgraduates from the above categories (state scholarship holders, scholars of the Hellenic Institute in Venice, members of the Greek Archaeological Service -who have been appointed or have been accepted after sitting examinations-, holders of postgraduate degrees, holders of first degrees of other Faculties admitted for a trial period, foreign graduates, holders of graduate degrees of other universities) are selected in addition to the average number of admissions.

Postgraduate students taking part in exchange schemes of the European Union or other similar schemes, are admitted as supernumeraries for a limited period, at the discretion of the BPS. Conversely, postgraduate students of the Faculty who wish to carry out part of their studies by participating in an exchange scheme can do so, at a EU or other University (with which the University of Athens has concluded an agreement of cooperation) at the discretion of the BPS.

6. Attendance

The supervisor is chosen among the members of the staff of the Department, who participate in the Postgraduate Program, and teach at least one seminar during the four semesters of the Program. The supervisors are appointed by the board of examiners, in collaboration with the successful candidates.

Students' attendance is obligatory and they must observe the regulations of each seminar and the instructions of the professor. If a student misses three classes in each seminar, he/she cannot submit a seminar paper.

Students are required to attend additional lectures or scholarly colloquia organized by the BPS. Students may attend specialized seminars and/or special undergraduate courses in other Faculties of Athens University or of any other Greek University, should these be deemed necessary supplements to their area of specialization. Attendance of undergraduate courses by the students requires the approval of their supervisor, and cannot, in any case, substitute for the postgraduate seminars.

Each seminar leads to the submission of an essay of 5.000-8.000 words until one month from the end of the semester. Course/seminar attendance is successful if the student achieves a minimum GPA (Great Point Average) of 7/10.

The teacher should submit the grade of the paper to the Secretariat of the Postgraduate Studies Program by 15th May for the winter seminars and by 30th September for the spring seminars. Failure on behalf of the student entails an obligation to re-attend the seminar or attend another one.

From the total number of courses/seminars, four must be selected from the list of courses in the student's chosen field or from a relevant field included in the Postgraduate Studies Program of the Department, as proposed by the supervisor, or from courses of the same specialization provided by a recognized foreign academic institution in the framework of a European Union Exchange Program. The other two seminars may be chosen from other specializations of the Postgraduate Studies Program of this Department, or of another Department or of a recognized research centre, provided the correspondence of the credits (ECTS).

In the specific fields of Archaeology or History of Art one of the seminars may be in the form of practice in the field, in a museum or in a research center, during the program, as proposed by the supervisor. This practice can be carried out at university excavations, in consultation with senior faculty members, or at the Archaeological Service. Upon completion of the internship, the postgraduate student has to prepare and deliver work in written form, which is graduated by the supervisor.

One course/seminar may be in the form of a "free seminar paper", relevant to the specific interests of the student on a specialized topic, which is not included in the Seminar Program of our Department. The supervisor of a "free seminar paper" may be a member of the staff of the Department or a specialized external collaborator. He/she is closely monitoring the progress of the candidates' work and holds meetings with them every fortnight. The paper is submitted in print at a special seminar at the end of the semester. It should be noted that the courses conducted by the external collaborators are included in the Program of the Department following their approval by the BPS.

 

7. Completion of studies

The Master's degree can be completed in two years for the FULL TIME students and in three years for the PART TIME students. There is the option of extending it for one semester, following a request by the student to the BPS, with the supervisor's approval, for exceptionally important reasons, such as military service, illness, family or personal matters.

Students who fail to graduate from the Program in two or three academic years are deleted from the registry, as stipulated in paragraph 2 («Administration»).

To obtain a Master's degree, the student has to submit a dissertation (Master's Degree Dissertation, MDD), the preparation and composition of which should be compiled in accordance with scholarly method, contain a personal contribution of the author to research, and be indicative of the candidate's synthetic ability. The length of the dissertation should be between 25.000 and 35.000 words including notes; however, bibliography, tables and photographs are not counted in.[3]

Αfter the submission of the dissertation, the supervisor must propose to the BPS the second and third examiner of the dissertation. The two examiners must be members of the academic staff or members of research institutes who hold a Ph.D, ranking A, B, C. The members of the committee must specialize in the same academic field or another field similar or relevant to the specific field (Law 3685/2008, article 5, paragraph 4). The three-member committee, appointed by the SGAF.

The student submits the final draft of his/her Dissertation to the supervisor and to the other two members of the committee at least two months before the end of the deadline of two or three years. The grade of the Master's Degree Dissertation is the average of the individual grades proposed by each of the three examiners. In case of a deviation larger than three grades between individual examiners, the matter is referred to the BPS.

The final grade of the Master's Degree is assessed as following: 50% from the grades of the six seminar papers and 50% from the grade of the Master's dissertation. Master's dissertations are marked on a grading scale from 7 (seven) to 10 (ten) with intermediary grades. Graduation is approved on a minimum grade of 7 (seven).[4]

Successful attendance of the seminars, as well as successful completion of the dissertation leads to the Postgraduate (Master's) Degree.

Each seminar equals to 15 ECTS credits and the Master's Dissertation to 30 ECTS credits. The total number of credits required to obtain a Master's degree is 120 ECTS.

Before graduating, the candidate is required to submit to the Secretariat of the Program the title and abstract of his master's dissertation in Greek and English (400 words each) to be posted on the Department's website and to post it in the digital repository of the University of Athens, "PERGAMOS".

Graduation ends with awards ceremony every January, June and October.

Every two years, a single-day colloquium is organized by each academic field, where postgraduate students present their Master's dissertations or chapters of doctoral dissertations in progress. This colloquium is open to the public and is announced to the academic community in advance.

8. MA Courses/Seminars

PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURCES

ECTS

- - Advanced study of the Paleolithic and the Mesolithic eras

- - Advanced study in the Neolithic era

 

 

15

 

- - Advanced study in the Minoan civilization

- - Advanced study in the Middle Helladic civilization

 

 

15

 

- - Advanced study in the Environment of Prehistoric times

- - Advanced study in the Early Bronze Age

 

 

15

 

- - Advanced study in the Mycenaean civilization

- - Advanced study in the Cypriot civilization

 

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

ECTS

Advanced study in the civilizations of the Near East

15

 

 

 

 

 

Master's Dissertation

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

- Archaeometry

- Management of Monuments

- Religious Studies

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

 

 

 

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

 

CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Advanced study in the Archaeology of the Early Historical and Archaic times

 

15

 

Advanced study in the Archaeology of Classical times

15

 

Advanced study in the Archaeology of Hellenistic and Roman times

15

 

- Epigraphy

- Numismatics

- Ancient texts

- Ancient History

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Advanced study in Architecture

15

 

 

 

30

 

- Management of Monuments

- Archaeometry

- Geology

- Museum Studies

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

15

 

TOTAL

 

30

TOTAL

30

 

 

 

BYZANTINE ARCHAEOLOGY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Advanced study in the Archaeology and Art of the Early Christian Period

15

 

Advanced study in the Archaeology and Art of the Byzantine Period

15

 

Byzantine History

15

 

Byzantine Philology

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

ECTS

Advanced study in the Archaeology and Art of the post-Byzantine Period

 

15

 

 

 

Master's Dissertation

 

 

30

 

- Numismatics

- Epigraphy

- Museum Studies

- Management of Monuments

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

- Matters of Theological Interpretation

 

 

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

HISTORY OF MODERN ART

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

- Courses in European Art

- Art of the Renaissance

- Art of Baroque

 

 

15

 

- Courses in Modern Greek Art

- Art of the Ionian islands

- Greek Painting of the Twentieth Century

- The Generation of the 1930s

- The Greek dimension in the evolution of Modern and Post Modern Art

15

 

Art of the Nineteenth Century

 

15

 

Art of the Twentieth Century

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

- Modern Greek Architecture

- Modern Greek Sculpture

- Modern Greek Engraving

- Post-War Art

15

 

 

 

30

 

- Management of Monuments

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

 

HISTORY OF THE GREEK AND THE ROMAN ANTIQUITY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Archaic and Classical Times

15

 

- Roman History

- The World of the Late Antiquity

15

 

Hellenistic Times

 

15

 

- Epigraphy

- Classical Archaeology

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Numismatics

15

 

 

30

 

- History of Law

- Ancient Greek Philology

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

 

BYZANTINE HISTORY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Early Byzantine Period

15

 

- Sources of Byzantine History

- Byzantine Philology

- Byzantine Archaeology

 

15

 

Middle Byzantine Period

 

 

15

 

- Byzantine society and economy

- Politics and administration

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Late Byzantine Period

 

15

 

30

 

- Byzantine Diplomacy

- Byzantine Art

 

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

 

OTTOMAN HISTORY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Advanced study in the Ottoman History Ι

15

 

- Theory of History and Historiography

- Sources of Byzantine History

- Modern Greek History ΙΙΙ

15

 

Modern Greek History Ι

15

 

Other seminars

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Advanced study in the Ottoman History ΙΙ

15

 

30

 

Other seminars

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN GREEK HISTORY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

- Early Modern Greek History

- Early Modern Greek History during the period of Venetian and Ottoman Rule

15

 

- Modern Greek History ΙΙΙ

- History of the Ottoman empire

- Theory of History and Historiography

15

 

- Modern Greek History ΙΙ

15

 

- Political, social, economic, cultural approaches of Modern and Contemporary Greek history from the making of the Greek states to our days.

- Public History

- Modern Greek History: Sources and Methodology

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Social, economic, historico-anthropological and cultural approaches of Modern and Contemporary Greek History

15

 

 

30

 

- European History

- Balkan History

- International Relations of Greece

- Historiography

- Oral History

- Auxiliary Sciences of History

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

15

 

   

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

EUROPEAN HISTORY

 

1st SEMESTER

2nd SEMESTER

 

COURSES

ECTS

COURSES

ECTS

Political, socio-economic and cultural history of Europe from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century

15

 

Political, socio-economic and cultural history of Europe from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century

15

 

Political, socio-economic and cultural history of Europe from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century

 

15

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

- Theory of History

- Historiography

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

3rd SEMESTER

 

4th SEMESTER

COURCES

ECTS

 

 

Master's Dissertation

ECTS

Political, socio-economic and cultural history of Europe from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century

15

 

 

30

 

- Implementation of New Technologies (IT applications for Humanities)

- Theory of History

- Historiography

15

 

TOTAL

30

TOTAL

30

 

 


[1] Law 3685/2008, Article 5 reads as follows:

1.a) the teaching of courses/seminars can be undertaken by:

aa) Members of academic staff of the appropriate Faculty or of other pertinent Faculties of the same university or another university or institution of higher education; professors who have retired due to age limit; visiting professors; authorized assistant professors or teaching assistants according to decree 407/1980 (Gov. Gazette 112 A) who are holders of a PhD. title.

ab) Researchers in recognized research institutes in Greece or abroad, who hold a PhD and have sufficient publications or are known for their scholarly contributions.

ac) Scholars of acknowledged authority, who are experts in the taught courses, or have relevant experience in the fields of the Postgraduate Studies Program.

b) The SGAF may assign supplementary work to teaching assistants according to decree 407/1980 or to Special Professors of Technological Institutions and the School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (namely in Greek: ΑΣΠΑΙΤΕ), who meet the required preconditions, as well as upon the condition that this is provided for by the Regulations of Postgraduate Studies of the home Institution.

2. Members of academic staff may not devote their time exclusively to the Postgraduate Studies Programme. Further details for the implementation of the Law may be clarified in the Regulations of Postgraduate Studies.

4. Each graduate student who attends a postgraduate program leading to a postgraduate degree, is being supervised by a member of the academic staff, appointed by the SGAF, following a proposal by the BPS. The BPS and the supervisor have the responsibility of supervising and monitoring the progress of the student. Members of recognized research institutes, who hold a PhD, or other members of the academic staff may be appointed as subsidiary supervisors of the student. For the examination of an MA dissertation, the SGAF appoints a three-member committee, consisting of the supervisor and two (2) other members of academic staff or researchers of grades A, B and C who hold a Ph.D. The members of the examining committee must be experts in the same or a relevant field to the academic field of the dissertation under examination.

 

[2] The Greek language requirements for postgraduate studies are identical with those requested by the Erasmus exchange program. For more details, see: http://www.interel.uoa.gr/erasmus/sm.html

 

[3] The main text should be typed in 12΄΄ fonds while the notes in 10΄΄. Line spacing should be 1,5 for the main text and 1 for the notes. The language in which the MDD is written may be defined by a decision of the SGAF (Law 2685/2008, article 9, paragraph 4c).

[4] The grades are: 7-8.49 (Very Good); and 8.50-10 (Excellent).